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Mountains in Clouds

Maladaptive daydreaming Measures

Important notice

 

* If you are a researcher or a clinician feel free to use the tools on this page free of charge. Our only expectation is that you show us similar courtesy by sharing your research report with us. Below you will find the scale in many other languages. If you wish to translate the scale into a language not represented below, please contact us for translation instructions.

 

* If you suspect that you might have maladaptive daydreaming please utilize the resources on this page for your personal use. We will not provide feedback on these scores and will not use them in research. The MDS-16 score provides an indication of suspected maladaptive daydreaming and should not be considered a diagnostic tool.

 

* If you wish to receive updates and calls for research participants for future studies, please leave your contact details here.

   The 16-item Maladaptive Daydreaming Scale (MDS-16)   

 

This 16-item scale is the primary MD measure rated on a 10-point Likert scale. Scores may range from 0 to 100. The MDS-16 total score is the average of its items. A mean score of 40 or higher indicates suspected clinical-level MD. In 2023 APA's PsychNet added the original MDS  and the MDS-16 to its database.

  • MDS-16 in other languages
    Original: English Albanian | Arabic | Armenian | Bengali | Bulgarian | Catalan | Chinese | Croatian | Danish | Dutch | Estonian | French | Georgian | German | Greek | Hindi | Hungarian | Hebrew | Italian | Japanese | Korean | Kyrgyz | Lithuanian | Marathi | Mecadonian | Montenegrin | Norwegian | Persian | Polish | Portuguese | Brazilian Portuguese | Romanian | Russian | Slovenian | Turkish | Serbian | Swedish | Spanish | Vietnamese |
  • Permission to use the MDS-16
    The MDS-16 is an open access measure and is available for research and clinical use without charge. We request that any research paper and publication that will have used the MDS-16 be shared with the ICMDR team, regardless of the language of the manuscript, with the understanding that we might add it to our online repository of MD publications.
  • Scoring of the MDS-16
    The MDS score is its mean (sum of the 16 items divided by 16). For the English version, a score of 40 or higher is indicative of probable MD. Ref: Soffer-Dudek, N. (2021). Corrigendum for The MDS-16 (English version) cutoff score.
  • MDS-16 References
    Abu-Rayya, H. M., Somer, E., & Meari-Amir, S. (2019, February 4). The Psychometric Properties of the Arabic 16-Item Maladaptive Daydreaming Scale (MDS-16-AR) in a Multicountry Arab Sample.Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice. Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/cns0000183 ​ Ahmadi, F., Goodarzi, M., Kazemi Rezai, S.A. & Yazdanimehr, R. (2023). Reliability, validity, and factor structure of the maladaptive daydreaming scale (MDS-16) in an Iranian sample. Journal of Clinical Psychology. DOI: 10.22075/JCP.2022.27056.2443 Balashevich, O.K., Harahukiua, A.I, Molotokas, A.A., Bayer, O.O, Kurapov, A.O. (2024). Adaptation and Psychometric Evaluation of the Maladaptive Daydreaming Scale (MDS-16) on a Ukrainian Sample: A Pilot Study. Perspectives and Innovations of Science ("Pedagogy" Series, "Psychology" Series, "Medicine" Series), 6(40), 609-629. (In Ukranian, English Abstract). https://doi.org/10.52058/2786-4952-2024-6(40)-609-629. Balestra, R. (2019). Rêveries compulsives : Validation de la version francophone du Maladaptive Daydreaming Scale (MDS-F) (Maladaptive daydreaming: validation of the French version of the Maladaptive Daydreaming Scale (MDS-F). Master's thesis submitted to the Faculté des sciences sociales et politiques, Université de Lausanne, Suisse (in French).] English abstract. Catelan, R.F.,Zsila, Á., Pietkiewicz, I.J., & Nardi, A.E. (2023). Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Maladaptive Daydreaming Scale (BMDS-16). Psychiatria I Psychologia Kliniczna, 23 (3), 129–140.https://dx.doi.org/10.15557/PiPK.2023.0018. ​ Jopp, D. S., Dupuis, M., Somer, E., Hagani, N., & Herscu, O. (2018). Validation of the Hebrew Version of the Maladaptive Daydreaming Scale (MDS-H): Evidence for a Generalizable Measure of Pathological Daydreaming. Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice. Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/cns0000162 Metin, S., Gocmen, B., Metin, B. (2022). Turkish validity and reliability study of maladaptive daydreaming. Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 12(1), 1-6. https://doi.org/10.5455/PBS.20210907111754 Pietkiewicz, I. J., Hełka, A., Barłóg, M., & Tomalski, R. (2023). Validity and reliability of the Polish Maladaptive Daydreaming Scale (PMDS-16) and its short form (PMDS-5). Clinical psychology & psychotherapy, 10.1002/cpp.2844. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.2844 Sándor, A., Münnich, Á., & Molnár, J. (2020). Psychometric properties of the Maladaptive Daydreaming Scale in a sample of Hungarian daydreaming-prone individuals, Journal of Behavioral Addictions JBA. Retrieved Oct 7, 2020, from https://akjournals.com/view/journals/2006/aop/article-10.1556-2006.2020.00050/article-10.1556-2006.2020.00050.xml Schimmenti, A. Sideli, L. La Marca, L., Gori, A. & Terrone, G. (2019): Reliability, Validity, and Factor Structure of the Maladaptive Daydreaming Scale (MDS–16) in an Italian Sample, Journal of Personality Assessment. Published online: 23 Apr 2019. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2019.1594240 Also: Schimmenti, A., Sideli, L., La Marca, L., Gori, A., & Terrone, G. (2020). Maladaptive Daydreaming Scale--Italian Version (MDS-16) [Database record]. APA PsycTests. https://doi.org/10.1037/t78295-000 ​ Soffer-Dudek, N., Somer, E., Abu-Rayya, H. M., Metin, B., & Schimmenti, A. (2020). Different cultures, similar daydream addiction? An examination of the cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the Maladaptive Daydreaming Scale, Journal of Behavioral Addictions JBA. Retrieved Nov 7, 2020, from https://akjournals.com/view/journals/2006/aop/article-10.1556-2006.2020.00080/article-10.1556-2006.2020.00080.xml. ​ Soffer-Dudek, N. (2021). Corrigendum for The MDS-16 (English version) cutoff score. ​ Somer, E., Lehrfeld J., Jopp, D.S., & Bigelsen, J. (2016). Development and Validation of the Maladaptive Daydreaming Scale (MDS). Consciousness and Cognition, 39, 77-91. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2015.12.001 ​ Somer, E., Soffer-Dudek, N., Ross, C. A., & Halpern, N. (2017). Maladaptive daydreaming: Proposed diagnostic criteria and their assessment with a structured clinical interview. Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice, 4(2), 176-189. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/cns0000114

   The Structured Clinical Interview for Maladaptive Daydreaming (SCIMD)   

 

The SCID-MD is a structured clinical interview, performed by a qualified professional, in order to detect active symptoms and diagnose the existence of maladaptive daydreaming. It has 4 sections and 14 diagnosis questions.

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The SCIMD is also available in

Hebrew   |   Spanish   |   Turkish |   French

   The Child Maladaptive Daydreaming Checklist (CMDC)   

 

The CMDC is a questionnaire to help detect suspected clinical-level of maladaptive daydreaming in children. The assessor fills a self-report 15-item on a 4-point Likert scale. Scores may range from 0 to 45.

   The Childhood Maladaptive Daydreaming Scale (C-MDS)   

The C-MDS is a 23-item questionnaire to detect active symptoms and diagnose the existence of potential maladaptive daydreaming in childhood. 21 of the questionnaire items are on a 5-point Likert scale. Scores may range from 1 to 5. Additional 2 items (#22-23) are open-question.

   The Immersive Daydreaming Content Checklist (IDCC)   

 

The IDCC is a short 2 pages self-report checklist of the immersive daydreaming content. 

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