The International Consortium for Maladaptive Daydreaming Research

Faculty of Social Welfare & Health Sciences,

University of Haifa, Israel.

© All rights Reserved. 2017.

Maladaptive Daydreaming Publications


Peer-reviewed Publications

* Under review (authored  by ICMDR researchers)

None at this point

* In press (authored  by ICMDR researchers)


Marcusson-Clavertz, D., West, M., Kjell, O.N. & Somer, E. (In press). A Daily diary study on maladaptive daydreaming, mind wandering, and sleep disturbances: Examining within-person and between-persons relations. PLOS One.

Greene, T., West, M. & Somer, E. (In press). Maladaptive daydreaming and emotional regulation difficulties: A Network Analysis. Psychiatric Research.

* Published (authored  by ICMDR researchers, by year of publication)

Schimmenti, A., Somer, E. & Regis, M. (2019). Maladaptive daydreaming: Towards a nosological definition. Annales Medico-Psychologiques, 177, 865-874.


Ross, C.A., West, M., & Somer, E. (2019). Self-Reported Medication And Recreational Drug Effectiveness In Maladaptive Daydreaming. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease.  DOI: 10.1097/NMD.0000000000001091


West, M. & Somer, E. (advance online publication, 2019). Empathy, emotion regulation and creativity in immersive daydreaming. Imagination, Cognition and Personality


Abu-Rayya, H.M., Somer, E. & Knane, H. (2019). Maladaptive daydreaming is associated with intensified psychosocial problems experienced by female survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Violence Against Women.


Abu-Rayya, H. M., Somer, E., & Meari-Amir, S. (2019, February 4). The Psychometric Properties of the Arabic 16-Item Maladaptive Daydreaming Scale (MDS-16-AR) in a Multicountry Arab Sample. Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice. Advance online publication.


Somer, E., Abu-Rayya, H.M. & Nsairy Samaan, Z. (2019). Maladaptive daydreaming among recovering substance use disorder patients: its prevalence and mediation of the relationship between childhood trauma and dissociation. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction.

International Journal of Mental Health and Addictions, 17(2), 206-216


Schimmenti, A. Sideli, L. La Marca, L., Gori, A. & Terrone, G.  (2019): Reliability, Validity, and Factor Structure of the Maladaptive Daydreaming Scale (MDS–16) in an Italian Sample, Journal of Personality Assessment. Published online: 23 Apr 2019. Doi:


Somer, E., Somer, L. & Halpern, N. (2019). Representations of maladaptive daydreaming and the self: A qualitative analysis of drawings. The Arts in Psychotherapy.  63, 102-110


Somer, E. (2019). On dissociative identity disorder and maladaptive daydreaming. Frontiers in the Psychotherapy of Trauma and Dissociation, 3(1):14–18.


Pietkiewicz, I.J., Nęcki, S., Bańbura, A, & Tomalski, R. (2018). Maladaptive daydreaming as a new form of behavioral addiction. Journal of Behavioural Addictions. Published online September 21, 2018. DOI: 10.1556/2006.7.2018.95


Jopp, D. S., Dupuis, M., Somer, E., Hagani, N., & Herscu, O. (2018). Validation of the Hebrew Version of the Maladaptive Daydreaming Scale (MDS-H): Evidence for a Generalizable Measure of Pathological Daydreaming. Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice. Online advance publication, August 2, 2018. 


Bershtling, O., & Somer, E. (2018). The micro-politics of a new mental condition: Legitimization in maladaptive daydreamers’ discourse. The Qualitative Report, 23(8), 1983-2002. Retrieved from


Ross, C.A. (2018).The Potential Relevance of Maladaptive Daydreaming in Treatment of Dissociative Identity Disorder in Persons With Ritual Abuse and Complex Inner Worlds. Frontiers in the Psychotherapy of Trauma and Dissociation, 1(2), 149-162. doi:


Soffer-Dudek, N. & Somer, E. (2018) Trapped in a Daydream: Daily Elevations in Maladaptive Daydreaming Are Associated With Daily Psychopathological Symptoms. Frontiers in Psychiatry 9(194). doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00194


Somer, E. (2018). Maladaptive daydreaming: Ontological analysis, treatment rationale and a pilot case report. Frontiers in the Psychotherapy of Trauma and Dissociation, 1(2), 1-22.  


Somer, E. & Herscu, O. (2017). Childhood trauma, social anxiety, absorption and fantasy dependence: Two potential mediated pathways to maladaptive daydreaming. Journal of Addictive Behaviors, Therapy & Rehabilitation, 6(3) (open access) DOI: 10.4172/2324-9005.1000170.


Somer, E., Soffer-Dudek, N., & Ross, C. A. (2017). The comorbidity of daydreaming disorder (Maladaptive Daydreaming). Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 205(7), 525-530. DOI:


Somer, E., Soffer-Dudek, N., Ross, C. A., & Halpern, N. (2017). Maladaptive daydreaming: Proposed diagnostic criteria and their assessment with a structured clinical interview. Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice, 4(2), 176-189. DOI:


Somer, E. Somer, L. & Jopp, S.D. (2016). Childhood Antecedents and Maintaining Factors in Maladaptive Daydreaming. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 204(6), 471-478.  DOI:


Somer, E. Somer, L. & Jopp, S.D. (2016). Parallel Lives: A Phenomenological Study of the Lived Experience of Maladaptive Daydreaming. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 17(5), 561-576. DOI:


Somer, E., Lehrfeld J., Jopp, D.S., & Bigelsen, J. (2016). Development and Validation of the Maladaptive Daydreaming Scale (MDS). Consciousness and Cognition, 39, 77-91. DOI:


Bigelsen, J., Lehrfeld, J.M., Jopp, D.S. & Somer, E. (2016). Maladaptive daydreaming: Evidence for an under-researched mental health disorder. Consciousness and Cognition, 42, 254-266. DOI:


Bigelsen, J., & Schupak, C. (2011). Compulsive fantasy: Proposed evidence of an under-reported syndrome through a systematic study of 90 self-identified non-normative fantasizers. Consciousness and Cognition: An International Journal, 20, 1634-1648. DOI:


Somer, E. (2002). Maladaptive daydreaming: A qualitative inquiry. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy 32(2), 195-210. DOI:


 *Published (authored  by non-ICMDR researchers)


Gervasi, S., Santoro, G. & Schimmenti, A. (In press). Maladaptive daydreaming: teoria, ricerca e implicazioni cliniche del disturbo da sogni a occhi aperti. Psichiatria & Psicoterapia (In Italian).


Zsila, Á, Urbán, R., McCutheon, L.E. & Demetrovics, Z. (Advance online publication, 2019). A path analytic review of the association between psychiatric symptoms and celebrity worship: The mediating role of maladaptive daydreaming and desire for fame. Personally and `individual differences, 151,


Rebello, P., Johnson, K., D'Souza, P., Rao, P.R., & Malamarthi, S. (2019). A case report on maladaptive daydreaming. Galore International Journal of Health Science and Research, 4(1), 33-36.


Zsila, Á., McCutcheon, L.E., & Demetrovics, Z. (2018). The association of celebrity worship with problematic Internet use, maladaptive daydreaming, and desire for fame. Journal of Behavioral Addictions.  Retrieved from DOI: 10.1556/2006.7.2018.76.


Anwar, M., Aqeel, M., & Shuja, K.M. (2018). Linking Social Support, Social Anxiety and Maladaptive Daydreaming: Evidence from University Students of Pakistan. Foundation University Journal of Psychology, 2(2), 139-179.


Schupak, C. & Rosenthal, J. (2009). Excessive daydreaming: A case history and discussion of mind wandering and high fantasy proneness. Consciousness and Cognition: An International Journal, 18, 290-292. DOI:


Other Scientific Publications

* Book chapters (authored by ICMDR researchers)

Sándor, A., Molnár, J. (2018). Maladaptív álmodozás. In: Kuritárné, Sz. I., Molnár, J., Nagy, A. (Eds). Trauma-eredetű disszociáció. Budapest: Oriold és Társai, 285-302.




* Papers presented in conferences (by ICMDR researchers, sample)


Bershtling, O. & Somer, E. (2019, June). The micro-politics behind the discovery of a new “mental disorder”: Legitimisation in the discourse of individuals suffering from maladaptive daydreaming. Paper presented at The Annual conference of The Israeli Society for the History and Philosophy of Science. Van Leer Institute, Jerusalem, Israel.


Breshtling, O. & Somer, E. (2019, May). The micro-politics behind the discovery of a new 'mental disorder': Legitimisation in the discourse of individuals suffering from maladaptive daydreaming. Paper presented at the 47th conference of the Israeli Anthropological Society : "Anthropology and Technology", Beer Sheva, Israel. 


Breshtling, O. & Somer, E. (2018, September). The micro-politics of a new mental condition: Legitimization in the discourse of individuals with 'maladaptive daydreaming. Paper presented at Qualitative Resesrch in Mental Health Conference, Berlin, Germany.


Somer, E. (July, 2018). Maladaptive daydreaming (Daydreaming disorder): The ontological question of a newly discovered clinical construct. Invited colloquium presented at Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany.


Somer, E (2018, June). Maladaptive Daydreaming: a disorder of dissociative absorption and its relation to childhood emotional neglect. Paper presented at a round table international workshop titled  “An Interdisciplinary Perspective on Trauma Research: Between Brain and Behavior”,  Shefayim, Israel.


Herscu, O. (2018, June). Treatment of maladaptive daydreaming: The development and assessment of an online self-help computerised intervention. Paper presented at the departmental colloquium, School of Social Work, University of Haifa, Israel (Hebrew abstract).


Somer, E. (2018, March). Pathological daydreaming: New evidence for a dissociative absorption disorder. Pre-conference workshop presented at the yearly conference of the German Speaking Society for Psychotrumatology. Dresden, Germany.


Somer, E. (2017, November) Maladaptive daydreaming: New evidence for a dissociative absorption disorder. Paper presented at annual Conference of the European Society for Trauma and Dissociation. Bern, Switzerland.


Somer, E. (2017, March). Maladaptive daydreaming – Evidence for a pathological form of absorption. Paper presented at the 34th annual conference of the International Society for the Study of Trauma and Dissociation. Washington, DC, USA.


* Papers presented in conferences (by non-ICMDR researchers)


Wen, H., Haliczer, L.A. & Dixon-Gordon, L.K. (2017, September). Maladaptive dreamers:
The association between personality disorder symptoms and maladaptive daydreaming. Poster presented presented at the XV Congress of the International Society for the Study of Personality Disorders, Heidelberg, Germany.


* Non-peer reviewed publications 


Witkin, M. (2019). Maladaptive daydreaming: Is it a "real thing"? The Brown University Child and adolescent Behaviour Letter, 35(2)


Surdacki, M. (2018, Niepublikowany manuskrypt). Nadmierne fantazjowanie dzieci w kontradaptacyjnym fantazjowaniu: przyczyny i symptomy. Uniwersytet Medyczny we Wrocławiu.


Surdacki, M. (2018, Unpublished translation). Children’s excessive daydreaming in Maladaptive daydreaming: causes and symptoms. Wroclaw Medical University, Poland.


Sándor, A. (2017). Examination of maladaptive daydreaming in the general population. English abstract of thesis submitted to the Department of Health Psychology, University of Debrecen, Hungary (in Hungarian). A presentation of data from this thesis won the 2nd national prize for outstanding research, 2017 Conference of the Scientific Student Association, Hungary. Supervisor: Dr. Judit Molnár. 


Sándor, A. (2017). A maladaptív nappali álmodozás vizsgálata átlagpopulációban. Disszertáció összefoglaló, Debreceni Egyetem.


Somer, E. (2013). From adaptive fantasy to dissociative psychopathology: On forms of daydreaming. A commentary on Young, W.C. (1988). Observations on Fantasy in the Formation of Multiple Personality Disorder Dissociation. Dissociation, 1(3) 13-20. ISSTDNews, Members Clinical Corner, June, 2013.


Regis, M. (2013). Daydreams and the Function of Fantasy.  Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN: ISBN-10: 1137300760



Academic Research Papers (theses)

* By ICMDR students 


Knane, H. (2018). Maladaptive daydreaming exacerbates psycho-social problems experienced by female victims of intrafamilial childhood sexual abuse. Thesis submitted to the Faculty of Social Welfare and Health Sciences, University of Haifa, Israel (in Hebrew) - English Abstract.

Meari-Amer, S. (2018). Do family support and religiosity moderate the interconnections between maladaptive daydreaming and childhood trauma, emotional distress and social problems? Thesis submitted to the Faculty of Social Welfare and Health Sciences, University of Haifa, Israel (in Hebrew) - English Abstract.


Nsairy-Simaan, Z. (2017). The relationship between childhood trauma, dissociation and maladaptive daydreaming among recovering substance use disorder patients. Thesis submitted to the Faculty of Social Welfare and Health Sciences, University of Haifa, Israel (in Hebrew) - English Abstract.

Herscu, O. (2015). When Life Becomes a Dream: The Relationship between Maladaptive Daydreaming, Childhood Trauma, Absorption, Social Anxiety, and Addiction to Daydreaming in a non-clinical student sample. Thesis submitted to the Faculty of Social Welfare and Health Sciences, University of Haifa, Israel (in Hebrew) - English Abstract.

* By non-ICMDR students 


Yilmaz, H. (2018). The relationship between maladaptive daydreaming, attention deficit-hyperactivity, psychological well-being and academic performance, An undergraduate thesis submitted to the Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, T.C. Maltepe University, Turkey


Cook, Mary, "Thin Places" (2018). English Honors Theses. 10.


Uslu, H. (2015). Understanding the relationship between media use and maladaptive daydreaming. A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences of Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA.

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